BioScience 102 - Lower Invertebrates

I. Introduction

A. Kingdom Animalia - the Animals

1. Multicellular, aerobic heterotrophs

2. Nutrition from large molecules

a. Ingestion - eating whole or in parts

b. Parasitism - close relationship where parasite obtains nutrition from living host

3. Bodies are diploid - only the gametes are haploid

4. Most animals are motile - move around as a result of their own activity

a. Some sessile - not motile and attached

b. Sessile forms--mechanisms for dispersal - just like plants and fungi

B Invertebrates = animals without backbones

C. A group with great diversity

1. Many phyla

2. Possibly a result of multiple lines of evolution from the Protista

a. Fossil evidence from 800 million years in the form of tracks and burrows in marine sediments

b. Ciliates--multiple nuclei, then compartments

c. Colonial flagellates with specialized cells

D. Body symmetry

1. Asymmetrical - no specific or characteristic shape

2. Radial - parts arranged around a central axis

a. Through the central axis in many planes and numerous equal halves

b. Usually associated with sessile or very slow moving animals

c. Always animals that live in water

3. Bilateral symmetry

a. Two sides that are mirror images of each other (not perfect)

b. Two ends - anterior and posterior

c. Usually a "top and bottom" = the dorsal and ventral

d. Evolutionary trend toward cephalization - a concentration of the sensory and nervous control areas in the head (anterior) end which leads into the environment

II. Placozoan - plate animal

A. Soft bodied and flat and a bit lumpy "like pita bread"
B. Cells arranged in two layers

C. Specialized cells migrate.

1. Lower layer with glandular cells which secrete enzymes for digestion

2. What kingdom studied earlier with same manner?

D. Reproduction--unknown

F. One known organism - Trichoplax adhaerens

III. Porifera - the sponges

A. mostly marine, a few are freshwater

B. Usually asymmetrical

1. Outer layer of a flattened epidermis

2. Inner layer of choanocytes - collar cells

3. Non-cellular layer between which contains

a. amoeboid cells - wandering cells

b. protein fibers

c. spicules - needles of calcium carbonate or silica

C. Two layered body around one or more cavities

1. body wall is perforated

2. beating flagella create current of water into the cavity

3. food coming in with water is trapped on the collar of the choanocytes

D. Reproduction

1. Sexual with eggs and sperm

2. Asexual by fragmentation (passive) or by production of gemmules (protected groups of cells)

IV. Cnidarians (tissue level) jellyfish, sea anemones, corals

A. Radial symmetry

B. Body Plan

1. Two cell layers

a. outer epithelium - epidermis

b. inner epithelium with digestive cells = the gastrodermis

2. Mesoglea - a thick proteinaceous separating layer

C. Specialized cells of the tissues - a group of one type of cell--a particular function

1. Neurons (but, not nerve cells)

2. muscle cells

3. secretory cells

4. cnidoblast cells that produce by secretion the nematocysts

D. Body forms

1. Polyp

a. column like with ring of tentacles

b. central body cavity

c. sometimes with an external skeleton

d. sessile

2. Medusa - jellyfish

a. bell-shaped with ring of tentacles

b. central sack-like digestive area

c. swims by contracting the bell rapidly

E. Life Cycle

1. Medusa is sexual stage producing gametes

2. Fertilization produces a zygote which develops into a planula larva

3. Settles and undergoes metamorphosis into a polyp

4. Variations

a. medusa only

b. polyp or polyps only (hydroids, sea anemones and corals

V. Platyhelminthes - the flatworms

A. Bilateral symmetry

B. Three cell layers

1. Ectoderm

2. Mesoderm

3. Endoderm

C. Simple organs - groups of one or more kinds of tissues arranged to perform a specific function

D. Simple organ systems - group of organs that perform a specific function

1. Digestive

2. Excretory

E. Reproduction

A. Sexual - are often Hermaphrodites

B. Asexual by fission

F. Classes

1. Turbellarians are free living in fresh and salt water and occasionally in moist terrestrial conditions

2. Flukes

a. parasites

b. complex life cycles of at least two hosts - one invertebrate and one vertebrate (often humans)

3. Tapeworms

a. segmented

b. usually are intestinal

c. multiple host life cycles

VI. Nematoda - roundworms (nema = “thread”)

A. Body cavity within the mesoderm around the digestive system

1. Looks like a coelom

2. Specifically a pseudocoelom

B. Digestive system with two openings

C. Hydrostatic skeleton

D. Parasitic and free living

E. Reproduction

1. Sexual only

2. Cell constancy (total number of body)

VII. Rotifera - wheel animals

A. Jointed bodies

B. Pseudocoelom

C. complex organ systems

D. Sexual reproduction

1. Males and females

2. Parthenogenesis

a. female populations

b. males only when "needed"


5885 - 5892

5912 - 5944
5951 - 5958
7039 - 7040 Flukes
7053 - 7065





Please answer the following questions by using SPSS and the file SAV

 You may want to begin by specifying the type of analyses which you would utilize to answer the question(s). 

For all questions, attach the corresponding output from SPSS.

1. Assuming a 95% level of confidence, determine the population estimate for how much the residents of the metropolitan area would expect to spend per month in restaurants for meals only.

The population mean is $150.05 expected spending per month at a 95% level of confidence.

2. Assuming a 99% level of confidence, estimate how likely the population of the metropolitan area would be to patronize a new, upscale restaurant as described in question 4.

At 99% level of confidence they are, neither likely nor unlikely, to patronize a new, upscale restaurant.

3. Among those who are “very likely” to patronize The Hobbit’s Choice Restaurant, the owner believes that they will either “very strongly” or “somewhat” prefer each of the following: waitstaff with tuxedos, unusual desserts, large variety of entrees, unusual entrees, elegant décor and jazz combo music. Does the data support these hypotheses? (Hint: You must select cases (Likely=5) before testing the hypotheses.)

The Data supports all of these hypotheses but one: (Very strongly prefer =5, and Somewhat prefer =4, so a mean bt 4 and 5 would support the hypothesis)

Waitstaff w/ tuxedos: 4.68 mean
Unusual desserts: 4.54 mean
Large variety of entrees: 4.51mean
Unusual entrees: 4.58 mean
Elegant décor: 4.50 mean
Jazz combo music: 2.60 mean; therefore, this segment is NOT supported by the hypothesis. They reported they would “Somewhat not prefer” or “Neither prefer nor not prefer” jazz combo music.

  1. Is there a difference between radio listeners and non-listeners in their likelihood of patronizing the new, upscale restaurant? Viewers and non-viewer’s of local TV news? Readers and non-readers of the newspaper? Assume a 99% confidence level for all three tests.

    Yes, there is a difference bt radio listeners and non-listeners as well as bt viewers and non-viewers of TV news, but the mean was the same for readers and non-readers of the newspaper.
    Radio Listeners- 3.03mean: Neither Likely Nor Unlikley
    Non-Listeners- 2.20mean: Somewhat Unlikely
    TV News Viewers- 3.22mean: Neither Likely Nor Unlikley
    Non Viewers- 1.25mean: Very Unlikley
    Readers and Non Readers – 3.00 and 3.05mean: Neither Likely Nor Unlikley

5. Is there a difference in metropolitan residents’ preference for simple décor and elegant décor? For unusual desserts and unusual entrees? Assume a 95% confidence level for both tests.

Yes, Simple Décor has a mean of 3.58 – showing it is somewhat preferred while Elegant Décor has a mean of 2.33 showing residents said it is somewhat not preferred.

6. Does the likelihood of patronizing the new upscale restaurant differ among metropolitan residents based on their level of education, marital status, or household income? Assume a 95% confidence level for all three tests.

Yes, all three demographic questions have varying means.

Level of Education:
Less than highschool 1.36
Some highschool 1.07
Highschool grad 1.29
Some college 1.14
  • The less educated segments are all very unlikely
Associate degree 2.43
  • This level is somewhat unlikely
Bachelor’s degree 3.22
Master’s degree 3.44
Doctorate degree 4.44
  • The remaining higher educated respondents are neither likely nor unlikely and the Doctorates somewhat likely.

Marital Status:
Single 2.90
Married 3.03
Other 3.03
  • Marital status didn’t affect the likelihood very much, all were Neither Likely not Unlikely

Household Income:
<$15,000 1.23
$15,000-24,999 1.15
  • Lower incomes are very unlikely
$25,000-49,999 2.68
$50,000-74,999 2.74
  • Mid range are Neither Likely nor Unlikely
$75,000-99,999 4.00
$100,000-149,999 4.56
$150,000 + 4.33

  • Uppper incomes vary bt Somewhat Likely and Very Likely

Memo to the President of a local business

Old Oak Furniture has recently been under new management and she does not fully understand the company’s policy yet. As the grandson of founder of the great company I will do everything in my power to make sure this does not happen again. At Old Oak Furniture will appreciate your business and would like to continue to do business with your company. Will do hope you understand the difficulties we are facing at this time and hope you all will continue to do business with us. I do understand the unfair treat that was given on our part and plan to make up for that.

 We do want you to understand that it was a mistake that you were asked to bid on a specific quantity by a set date. That dates are not the most important part of a deal when working with supplier. That the relationship with your company is far more important that saving $75 dollars. We do understand that just going with the lowest bid will hurt the company in the long run. I hope that this mistake has not ruined our good business relationship.

Petula’s memo to the president should explain the new way of purchasing and dealing with buyers. She should ask the president if he wants her to continue to enforce the company policy of taking the lowest bid from suppliers no matter who the supplier or if forming and keeping good supplier relationships is more important. Petula as the manager should show the president that her new aggressive approach is working for the company and helping with sales.

Expenditures for purchased materials had remained constant while production and sales had risen by 6 percent. This shows that the way Petula has decided to conduct business is paying off. The president needs to make it plain in the company policy for the future if he wants supplier relationship to be important when making a purchase. He needs to explain in detail what steps should be taken to discuss bids with suppliers instead of just taken the lowest at the time because that may not pay off in the long run.

Petula should ensure the president that she has been doing this job for years and she knows what she is doing. She should make the president feel at ease with her decision making and assure him that she is capable of doing her job.

Persuasive Speech Topic Examples Brainstorm for Class

Become an Organ Donor


Animal testing

Term limits

Academic fraud

College class attendance-

Taking Cost of prescription drugs

Living wills

Cell phones in public

Don't Be Scared of Those Sharks

Don't Let Credit Cards Rule Your Life

Human Cloning: Handle With Care

Recycling - It's Worth the Trouble

Steroids Could Ruin Your Health

We Should Be Encouraging Needle Exchange Programs

Working Ourselves to Death?

You Can Change the World - Become an Activist

Coke vs. Pepsi

Eating fast-food


Blood donation

Stem-cell research

Educational costs

Lowering the drinking age


Smoking in public

Helmet laws

Seat belt laws

Prayer in schools

Gun control

Speech on Business Communications

Last Wednesday, Dave Guerin came to speak to our class. He is the executive director of university communications. This is a new department as of May last year to Louisiana Tech. Some things that his new department is responsible for would include institutional marketing. Because athletics are a peephole to how people view Louisiana Tech, they do their best to well represent them. They pair with Learfield Sports to try to get Louisiana Tech's brand tone the strongest it can be. He really emphasized Howe have to be consistent when trying to build our brand. The goals, ideas, and marketing strategies have to overall be the same  across all of our departments. Louisiana Tech did not even have a branding program until 2003. Before this, there were all kinds of weird Tech logos out there. The branding program helped consolidate those and eliminate them from the marketplace. He continuously stressed how much the strength of our brand depends solely on consistency. 

Dave's department also is responsible for all of the athletic or academic press releases. They must be timely where some viewers want to know the news immediately. He mentioned that their ingest challenge is that anyone can post bad news which spreads quickly and is not always accurate. More of this department’s responsibilities include press releases, experts database, being the primary point of contact for media for the university, printed media, and branding and imaging. Some things this school has trade marked are 'La Tech', 'Louisiana Tech', the logo, a photograph, a recognized image of the campus, and the bulldog. We cannot have 'dawgs' trade marked because this is already co-owned by Georgia and Washington.

ENGLISH 101-013 Debate

During the third presidential debate at Lynn University, Boca Baton, Florida Monday Oct 22nd 2012, President Obama accused GOP presidential nominee Gov. Mitt Romney of wanting to take America back to the economic policies that preceded the great depression. In their debate on Monday, Obama asserted that his rival’s plans will only revive the ‘‘economic policies of the 1920s’’. The comment typically implies that Mitt Romney plan seems like a replica of that of President Bush.

The theme of the leaders in 1920 was low taxes and light regulation and this is exactly what the Presidents rival is driving towards. Obamas implication that things did not work out so well then appealed to the audience, with the Wall Street crash and the great depression starting at the end of the decade under another republican, Herbert Hoover. We might not want to select someone who is following the same path.

In conjunction with this, another outstanding moment during this debate was the commander in chief’s horses and bayonets line. President Obama said ‘’ let me mention the navy for example we have fewer ships than in 1916, well governor, we also have fewer horses and bayonets because the nature of our military has changed. We have these things called aircraft carriers where planes land on them, ships that go under water, nuclear submarines…’’ Obama appealed to the audience by trying to portray the governor as someone who has policies and principles that will bring the country backward.

Example Greek Pledge Application

Fraternity or Sorority (Greek Life)
Prospective Pledge Application
Winter 2014 Recruitment
Name: ______________________________________________________________
Major: ______________________________________________________________
Classification: _________________________________________________________
Current GPA: ______________________________________________________
Graduating Year and Quarter: _____________________________________________
Do You Currently Hold a Job? If so, where: __________________________________
Are you involved in any other extra-curricular activities? If so, please list them as well as any leadership positions held previously and/or presently.
What do you think you could contribute to our Fraternity or Sorority?
I _____________________________, herby confirm that all of the above information is accurate and the Delta Sigma Pi, Professional Fraternity may use this information as a standard for measuring my eligibility for the consideration of my induction into Delta Sigma Pi.

Signature/Date ____________________________________________________________

CIS SQL Project and Research for Article Business

Class topic covered or search term/keyword: Advertisements
Article Title: Public Service Advertisements: Emotions and Empathy Guide Prosocial Behavior
Authors: Richard Bagozzi and David Moore
Publication: Journal of Marketing
Edition: Vol. 58, No. 1 (Jan., 1994), pp. 56-70
Publisher: American Marketing Association
Problem: Public Service Advertisements play on our emotions.
Synopsis: There are two different types of Public Service Advertisements. One type is aimed at individuals who need help, and the other is aimed at getting the public to help those that might be in need. When Public Service Advertisements are played, they generally do seem to have that frame of reference to them. An ad might have a man that had smoked cigarettes his whole life in a wheelchair because his health has diminished since he got sick from something caused by the cigarettes.
Compelling Quote from the Article:

Table 1.1
Create Table Employee01 (SSNnumber char(9) Not Null primary key, FirstName Varchar(15) not null, MidName Char, LastName Varchar(15) Not Null, Birthday date, Address varchar(50), Sex Char, Salary decimal(10,2) Default '800', SupervisorSSN Char(9), DepNum Int);

Alter Table Empolyee01 add Constraint SupervisorSSN Foreign Key (SupervisorSSN) References Empolyee01 (SSNnumber) ON DELETE SET NULL;
Table 1 Alter 1.1
alter table Employee01 add constraint SSNnumber Foreign key (SupervisorSSN) References Employee01 (SSNnumber) on delete set null;

PEER EVALUATION for Management 400 Group Project and Parent Form

Write your evaluation of your group members’ collaboration and contribution to your group project. Your evaluation will be confidential. Please rate each of your members on the scale from 1 (the worst) and 10 (the best).

Please type “Peer Evaluation – MGMT 400” in the subject of your email

Your evaluation should include the following information

Your name: …..
Your group: (name of your group project)

Name of member 1: Your evaluation of this member (for example, 7/10)
Name of member 2: Your evaluation of this member (for example, 7/10)
Name of member 3: Your evaluation of this member (for example, 7/10)

Your comments :


Dear Parent,

As a school component to the Education Reading Diagnostic course at this University, one of my students, ______________________________, has been assigned to your child’s classroom. He/She would like to work with your child to identify his/her reading strengths and areas for improvement. Additionally, the teacher candidate will be able to offer one-to-one tutoring opportunities for your child during the school day.

We hope that you will support this opportunity to assist your child and help our teacher candidates gain experience working with students. Thank you for allowing our teacher candidates the opportunity to make a difference in your child’s life. Should you have any questions, please free to contact me.


Department of Curriculum, Instruction, and Leadership

College of Education

*Please return to your child’s teacher by 


--------------------------------------------------------------------cut here------------------------------------------------------------------

As the parent or legal guardian of ____________________________, I grant permission for my child to be tutored by an University teacher candidate during the next few months. I understand that the teacher candidate will be conducting reading interest inventories and diagnostic testing to assist in identifying reading strengths and areas for improvement as well as a list of recommended reading materials and that this information will be shared with me and my child’s teacher.

Parent/Guardian signature and then Date

Helpful Articles for Studying Business

The following articles are examples of the type of work which professors ask students to do for extra credit. This is a great way to ensure that at the end of the semester/ quarter/ or term, that the final grade is what is expected. Many times extra credit involves additional readings or general writing assignments which will be added to the overall classroom points. Teachers and professors appreciate students who complete extra credit assignments because it shows dedication and a level of serious in the students' academic studies.

1/2/13 C3
Banks Near Foreclosure Deal
1/5/13 C1
Big Banks Readying Payout Plans
Citigroup, for One, Will Seek Fed's OK for a 'Minimal' Share Buyback; Part of Year's 'Stress Tests'
1/7/13 C1
Rules for Lenders Relaxed
Regulators Agree to Ease Requirements for Meeting Guideline on Liquidity
1/10/13 C1
Mortgage Deals Came Just in Time
1/15/13 C1
J.P. Morgan Ordered to Fix Lapses
1/18/13 C1
Regionals Outplay Big Banks
Latest Earnings Reports Illustrate Benefits of Simpler Businesses, Sharper Focus
1/24/13 C3
Banks Fight Fannie Over Insurance
Mortgage Firm Wants to Cut Cost of Policies Forced on Homeowners, Lowering Lenders' Fee Income
Citi Adds to Drain of Funds at SAC
Multiple Relationships With Hedge-Fund Firm Are at Stake in Company's Decision to Redeem $187 Million
1/28/13 C1
Citi Crafts Comic Push for Survey's Top Ranking
1/30/13 C3
Banks Worry CFPB May Be Weakened
2/5/13 C3
Risks Under Review at U.K. Banks

2/6/13 C3
NYSE Takes Steps To Refill Showroom
2/13/13 C3
Fed Bank Chiefs Back Money-Fund Overhaul
2/11/13 C1
Is Bull Sprint Becoming a Marathon?
Recent Rally Has Sparked Debate Over Whether a 13-Year Stretch of Lackluster Returns Is Over
2/20/13 C3
BofA Rewards CEO for Revival in 2012
2/21/13 C3
Investors Seek to Split J.P. Morgan Top Posts

Nonbinding Proposal From Union, Pension Funds Aims to Separate Chairman and Chief Executive Roles Held by Dimon

2 Special Marketing Events

The 1st Event

My marketing event deals with a car dealership that I was at in Texas a while back. I was helping my cousin find a car with no luck. One of the car salesman finally walked up and began telling us about all the cars. We got to a car that my cousin was particularly fond of, but she did not like the price. The salesman performed a trick that he had planned before we even got there. The car was originally 16,999, but before we got there he flipped the 6 to look like a 9, so it read 19,999. When she was deciding on whether she wanted to pay the price, the salesman flipped over the 9 back to a 6. The deal supposedly looked really good, but he didn’t change the price at all. She ended purchasing the car due to the magic trick that the salesman pulled.

The 2nd Marketing Event

My marketing event entails a concert that will be going on tomorrow night, Friday, September 28, 2012. I was listening to 104.1, a popular country radio station around here, one morning and they were talking about Chris Young, a famous country singer, was going to be playing at Rabb’s Steakhouse on Friday. I actually had forgotten about it the first time that I heard about it, but almost every local country radio station was discussing this concert. So after Chris Young’s band manager’s marketing strategy of letting everyone in the local area know about the concert, I will be attending the event and it will probably be sold out.

nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio data for Psychology Undergraduates

Define nominal data and provide an example. A nominal data set is also known as a categorical data set. There is no indication of value within a nominal data set.

Define ordinal data and provide an example. With ordinal data you cannot state with certainty whether the intervals between each value are equal. An example would be a rating scale based on 1-10.

Define interval data and provide an example.The difference between intervals in equal. Do you agree strongly, somewhat, neutral, not at all.

Define ratio data and provide an example. A ratio variable, has all the properties of an interval variable, and also has a clear definition of 0.0

What is the difference between reliability and validity? Reliability is consistency of the data and validity is the data's accuracy.

Percent Worksheet

The Facts about Percents
  1. Huascar goes to the store to buy a new i-pod. The original price is $250.00 but they are 13% off. How much is the same price?

  1. What is 30% of 120?
  1. Stephanie paid $48.00 for a jacket that was on sale for 20% off. What was the original price?

  1. What percent of 60 is 25?

Personal Evaluation for Computer Information Systems Online

Tell us why you decided to go into your chosen field of study, and how your education reinforced your desire to be a systems analysis for Caterpillar. How do these factors translate into benefits for us should we desire to hire you?

For as long as I can remember, computers have been a pivotal part of my life. Growing up in the era that I did computers were widely used and even began to appear in homes when I was a child. I was immediately fascinated with not just the computer but how it functioned and what its capabilities were. So as you can imagine, this passion has been instilled in me from childhood and it became very clear that I wanted to work in the field with computers from a very early age. In high school, after basically teaching a web development class the administration built a team to have the website of the school established. The four of us were responsible for everything pertaining to the website including design, function, and maintenance year after year. Upon attending an online university for a degree program, I honestly was not sure of what I wanted to pursue as a career. Computers were always a part of my life and I just was not sure that they were my passion. My major from day one has been Computer Information Systems and has been very educational and informative but I just was not sure what I wanted to do. Then a very endowed professor recommended me to an Information Security class and that’s when it became very clear that this is what I was meant to do.
During my time here at Louisiana Tech University there have been many situations that have helped reassure my decision in becoming a systems analyst for a major company. One of which was the professors, I always knew I had a strong love and passion for computers but after immersing into my curriculum, I began to increase knowledge and broaden my perspective which allowed me to reinforce this passion.

While working at a local restaurant, 102 K Bistro, I began to hone my oral communication skills. I quickly became the head Sushi Chef which helped me become the man I am today. While rolling Sushi I was at an “action station” which means I have daily interactment with the customers. During the two years of working for the Bistro during my undergrad, they asked me for help maintaining the information system. I replaced the outdated system and replaced it with an existing system which is still running today. After replacing the system, I continued to test, maintain, and improve the system and it became something that I took pride in.

I am a Delti Chi Alumni and the experience within the fraternity taught me a lot of things. I was also a member of the Catholic Christian Ministry which was also very educational. Life within the fraternity taught me how to have courage and convictions to defend the opinions of myself and others. The two memberships also taught me how to work well on a team, how to assign and complete roles and tasks. The last four years in Computer Information Systems have been challenging and very rewarding. I have already been able to implement the skills that I learned while attending Online School University. Looking back to when I was an incoming freshman, I had no clue I would find something I was so passionate about for my future. After having one of the absolute best college experiences by being involved in campus organizations, I know that I am competent with leadership and communication skills. These same leadership and communication skills will assist me in the road to becoming a Systems Analyst in the near future.

Bryant, Mathew

lab experiment for ohm’s law, series and parallel resistive circuits

The lab experiment for ohm’s law, series and parallel resistive circuits, was divided into three sections by me and my lab partners to measure the current flow and voltage across a resistor as a function of the supply voltage for the DC supply voltage from 0 to 10 V in steps of 1 V.

The first section of the experiment measured the current flow in a 10 KΩ resistor as a function of the supply voltage for a DC supply voltage from 0 to 10 V in steps of 1 V using a digital multi-meter. From a pool of resistors we measured each of the resistors with a digital multi-meter clipped on both ends of the resistor, in other to pick out the 10 KΩ resistor from the pool. The resistor was connected in series with a DC voltage source, where the voltage was systematically increased from 0 to 10 V in steps of 1 V and the respective current was recorded. Power supply voltage was calculated using the voltage and current readings obtained.

In the second section, we replaced the 10 KΩ resistor with a 8.2 KΩ and 1.8 KΩ resistor in series. Again, we measured each resistor from the pool to find out which one is the 8.2 KΩ and 1.8 KΩ resistor, using a digital multi-meter clipped on both ends of the 8.2 KΩ and 1.8 KΩ resistor respectively. The two resistors were connected in series on a bread board with a DC voltage source, where the voltage was systematically increased across the 1.8 KΩ from 0 to 10 V in steps of 1 V and the respective current was recorded. Power supply voltage was calculated using the voltage and current readings obtained.

Finally in the third section, we replaced the 8.2 KΩ and 1.8 KΩ resistors with a 30 KΩ and 15 KΩ resistors in parallel. The 30 KΩ and 15 KΩ resistors were measured out from the pool of resistors using a digital multi-meter clipped on both ends of the 30 KΩ and 15 KΩ resistor respectively. The two resistors were connected in parallel on a bread board with a DC voltage source, where the voltage was systematically increased from 0 to 10 V in steps of 1 V and the respective current flow was measured in the 15 KΩ resistor. The procedure was repeated, but this time the current flow was measured in the 30 KΩ resistor. Again, the procedure was repeated and the current flow was measured entering the 30 KΩ and 15 KΩ resistor combination in parallel. Power supply voltage was calculated using the voltage and current readings obtained, in each case.

International Marketing

With dramatic growth of once domestic companies into the global market, comes an increasingly higher amount of disputes between countries concerning matters of trade. To solve these matters, agreeing countries have turned to the process of International Dispute Resolution (Chapter 5, Slide 9). A prime example of this would be the current conflict between Japan and China. The dispute comes after a long standing argument over who has sovereignty of the Senkaku islands, also known as the Diaoyu islands, which are located in the East China Sea. Japan’s recent purchase of three of the islands has outraged the population of China and caused protest across the country.

The first step of international dispute resolution, informal resolution, cannot be completed due to the magnitude of the dispute and attitudes of both countries. With no informal resolution, both countries may now enter into an agreement through either mediation (a 3rd-party led, nonbinding agreement between both countries to resolve the dispute), or arbitration (a decision rendered by a 3rd-party in which both countries must agree to). As the dispute continues on with no informal agreement in sight, Japan and China seem to be facing arbitration in the International Court of Justice.

Kevin Clements and Ria Shibata, (2012, October).” Finding a solution to conflict over islands”.Deccan Herald. Accessed: October 8, 2012. content/ 283970/ finding- solution-conflict-over-islands.html

BioScience 120 - Invertebrates II

 (mollusks, annelids, arthropods, echinoderms)

I. The coelom: A major divergence in animal evolution

A. Development of a True Coelom (Eucoelomate)

1. Has a lining of mesoderm (peritoneum)

2. Two methods of embryonic formation

a. solid mass of mesoderm forms and splits to form two lateral coelomic cavities (schizocoelous)

b. two pouches (evaginations) from the gut from the mesoderm with a pair of coelomic cavities (enterocoelous)

B. These two methods of coelom formation = the two major lines of evolution

1. Protostome line

a. mouth--first opening to form in the embryo

b. cells division in a spiral pattern

c. schizocoelous

2. Deuterostome line

a. mouth--second opening

b. anus or terminal opening first

c. cells division in a radial pattern

d. enterocoelous

II. Phylum Mollusca - snails, clams and their relatives

A. Protostomes

B. Soft bodied (= mollus)

C. Shell of calcium carbonate for protection

D. Mantle - a tissue folded over the body to make the shell

E. Gastropods - stomach footed

1. Diverse - found in all habitats except the air

2. Primitive forms with a twisted body so that the anus empties on the head
3. Flattened foot which is muscular and slimy

4. Shell usually coiled

5. A few very advanced forms--no shell as an adult, but the larvae with shell (veliger)

6. Radula - a muscular belt-like tongue with teeth that scrape food.

F. Bivalves - two shells, one on each side

1. Foot usually a blade-like extensible structure for burrowing in sand and mud.

2. Some (oysters and muscles) stick--hard substrates like rocks or boats

3. Filter feeders

4. Siphons out of the mud or sand

G. Cephalopods - Ahead foots@

1. Foot = arms or tentacles around the mouth

2. Predators - beak for biting prey

3. Mantle cavity = a contractile chamber for "jet propulsion"

4. Only mollusks with a closed circulatory system

a. constant volume

b. high pressure

c. found in high metabolism organisms

5. Well developed nervous system

1. Eyes

2. Some ability to learn

3. Complex behavior

III. Annelida - ringed worms

A. Segmented - many repeat units - some same; others modified

1. Evolutionary (specialization of parts)

2. Redundancy (serial homology)

B. Closed circulatory system

C. Organ systems well developed

D. Marine, fresh water and terrestrial

E. Example - earthworm

1. Nephridia for excretion

2. Muscles

3. Nervous system

4. Digestive system

5. Reproduction - hermaphroditic

F. Marine worms

G. Leeches

IV. Arthropoda - jointed legs

A. Characteristics

1. Exoskeleton

a. protection

b. muscle attachments

c. restrict water loss on land

d. must shed (molt) to increase in size

2. Jointed appendages

3. Highly specialized segments

4. Compound eyes

5. Division of labor in life cycle

6. Open circulatory system

a. larval stages ecologically different from adults

b. sometimes terminal stage for reproduction only

c. dispersal increased

B. Most successful group of organisms in the history of life on earth (greatest number of species)
C. Chelicerata - spiders and their kin

1. Evolved in the oceans; now mostly terrestrial

a. horseshoe crabs and sea spiders

b. scorpions, spiders, ticks and mites

2. Characteristics

a. four pairs of legs

b. pedipalps for sensation and mating

c. chelicerae - fangs with poison glands

d. two main body divisions--Cephalothorax and Abdomen
e. book gills or book lungs

D. Subphylum Mandibulata - specialized mouth parts

1. Crustacea - crabs, crayfish and relatives

a. hard, yet flexible crust (exoskeleton)

b. great variety of organisms

c. varied number of segments

d. marine, freshwater and terrestrial

2. Insecta

a. characteristics

1. 6 walking legs

2. Dorsal wings

3. Three body parts - head, thorax and abdomen

4. Trachea

b. most numerous organisms by number of species

c. freshwater, terrestrial and aerial

d. complex life cycles

1. Gradual - young to adult

2. Nymphs

3. larva, pupa, adult
e. pollinators

f. insects, lice, fleas

3. Myriapods - centipedes and millipedes

a. heads

b. trunk of many segments each with a pair of legs

V. Deuterostome line of evolution

VI. Echinodermata - starfish and relatives

A. Characteristics

1. Calcium skeleton in the body wall

2. Water-vascular system with tube feet

3. Decentralized nervous system

4. Radial symmetry

a. bilateral larvae

b. adaptation to slow movement - sessile

5. Marine only

B. Diversity

1. Starfish

2. Brittle stars

3. Sea cucumbers

4. Crinoids (sea lilies)


Mollusca Arthropoda
8272 - 8275 9272 - 9287 Chelicerates
8277 - 8281 9290 - 9298 Mandibulates
8283 - foot 9330 - 9334
9200 - 9202 9359 - 9362
9215 - 9223 Echinoderamata
Annelida 9389 - 9404
9224 - 9230 9408*

9257 - 9261