BioScience 102 - Lower Invertebrates

I. Introduction

A. Kingdom Animalia - the Animals

1. Multicellular, aerobic heterotrophs

2. Nutrition from large molecules

a. Ingestion - eating whole or in parts

b. Parasitism - close relationship where parasite obtains nutrition from living host

3. Bodies are diploid - only the gametes are haploid

4. Most animals are motile - move around as a result of their own activity

a. Some sessile - not motile and attached

b. Sessile forms--mechanisms for dispersal - just like plants and fungi

B Invertebrates = animals without backbones

C. A group with great diversity

1. Many phyla

2. Possibly a result of multiple lines of evolution from the Protista

a. Fossil evidence from 800 million years in the form of tracks and burrows in marine sediments

b. Ciliates--multiple nuclei, then compartments

c. Colonial flagellates with specialized cells

D. Body symmetry

1. Asymmetrical - no specific or characteristic shape

2. Radial - parts arranged around a central axis

a. Through the central axis in many planes and numerous equal halves

b. Usually associated with sessile or very slow moving animals

c. Always animals that live in water

3. Bilateral symmetry

a. Two sides that are mirror images of each other (not perfect)

b. Two ends - anterior and posterior

c. Usually a "top and bottom" = the dorsal and ventral

d. Evolutionary trend toward cephalization - a concentration of the sensory and nervous control areas in the head (anterior) end which leads into the environment

II. Placozoan - plate animal

A. Soft bodied and flat and a bit lumpy "like pita bread"
B. Cells arranged in two layers

C. Specialized cells migrate.

1. Lower layer with glandular cells which secrete enzymes for digestion

2. What kingdom studied earlier with same manner?

D. Reproduction--unknown

F. One known organism - Trichoplax adhaerens

III. Porifera - the sponges

A. mostly marine, a few are freshwater

B. Usually asymmetrical

1. Outer layer of a flattened epidermis

2. Inner layer of choanocytes - collar cells

3. Non-cellular layer between which contains

a. amoeboid cells - wandering cells

b. protein fibers

c. spicules - needles of calcium carbonate or silica

C. Two layered body around one or more cavities

1. body wall is perforated

2. beating flagella create current of water into the cavity

3. food coming in with water is trapped on the collar of the choanocytes

D. Reproduction

1. Sexual with eggs and sperm

2. Asexual by fragmentation (passive) or by production of gemmules (protected groups of cells)

IV. Cnidarians (tissue level) jellyfish, sea anemones, corals

A. Radial symmetry

B. Body Plan

1. Two cell layers

a. outer epithelium - epidermis

b. inner epithelium with digestive cells = the gastrodermis

2. Mesoglea - a thick proteinaceous separating layer

C. Specialized cells of the tissues - a group of one type of cell--a particular function

1. Neurons (but, not nerve cells)

2. muscle cells

3. secretory cells

4. cnidoblast cells that produce by secretion the nematocysts

D. Body forms

1. Polyp

a. column like with ring of tentacles

b. central body cavity

c. sometimes with an external skeleton

d. sessile

2. Medusa - jellyfish

a. bell-shaped with ring of tentacles

b. central sack-like digestive area

c. swims by contracting the bell rapidly

E. Life Cycle

1. Medusa is sexual stage producing gametes

2. Fertilization produces a zygote which develops into a planula larva

3. Settles and undergoes metamorphosis into a polyp

4. Variations

a. medusa only

b. polyp or polyps only (hydroids, sea anemones and corals

V. Platyhelminthes - the flatworms

A. Bilateral symmetry

B. Three cell layers

1. Ectoderm

2. Mesoderm

3. Endoderm

C. Simple organs - groups of one or more kinds of tissues arranged to perform a specific function

D. Simple organ systems - group of organs that perform a specific function

1. Digestive

2. Excretory

E. Reproduction

A. Sexual - are often Hermaphrodites

B. Asexual by fission

F. Classes

1. Turbellarians are free living in fresh and salt water and occasionally in moist terrestrial conditions

2. Flukes

a. parasites

b. complex life cycles of at least two hosts - one invertebrate and one vertebrate (often humans)

3. Tapeworms

a. segmented

b. usually are intestinal

c. multiple host life cycles

VI. Nematoda - roundworms (nema = “thread”)

A. Body cavity within the mesoderm around the digestive system

1. Looks like a coelom

2. Specifically a pseudocoelom

B. Digestive system with two openings

C. Hydrostatic skeleton

D. Parasitic and free living

E. Reproduction

1. Sexual only

2. Cell constancy (total number of body)

VII. Rotifera - wheel animals

A. Jointed bodies

B. Pseudocoelom

C. complex organ systems

D. Sexual reproduction

1. Males and females

2. Parthenogenesis

a. female populations

b. males only when "needed"


5885 - 5892

5912 - 5944
5951 - 5958
7039 - 7040 Flukes
7053 - 7065





Please answer the following questions by using SPSS and the file SAV

 You may want to begin by specifying the type of analyses which you would utilize to answer the question(s). 

For all questions, attach the corresponding output from SPSS.

1. Assuming a 95% level of confidence, determine the population estimate for how much the residents of the metropolitan area would expect to spend per month in restaurants for meals only.

The population mean is $150.05 expected spending per month at a 95% level of confidence.

2. Assuming a 99% level of confidence, estimate how likely the population of the metropolitan area would be to patronize a new, upscale restaurant as described in question 4.

At 99% level of confidence they are, neither likely nor unlikely, to patronize a new, upscale restaurant.

3. Among those who are “very likely” to patronize The Hobbit’s Choice Restaurant, the owner believes that they will either “very strongly” or “somewhat” prefer each of the following: waitstaff with tuxedos, unusual desserts, large variety of entrees, unusual entrees, elegant décor and jazz combo music. Does the data support these hypotheses? (Hint: You must select cases (Likely=5) before testing the hypotheses.)

The Data supports all of these hypotheses but one: (Very strongly prefer =5, and Somewhat prefer =4, so a mean bt 4 and 5 would support the hypothesis)

Waitstaff w/ tuxedos: 4.68 mean
Unusual desserts: 4.54 mean
Large variety of entrees: 4.51mean
Unusual entrees: 4.58 mean
Elegant décor: 4.50 mean
Jazz combo music: 2.60 mean; therefore, this segment is NOT supported by the hypothesis. They reported they would “Somewhat not prefer” or “Neither prefer nor not prefer” jazz combo music.

  1. Is there a difference between radio listeners and non-listeners in their likelihood of patronizing the new, upscale restaurant? Viewers and non-viewer’s of local TV news? Readers and non-readers of the newspaper? Assume a 99% confidence level for all three tests.

    Yes, there is a difference bt radio listeners and non-listeners as well as bt viewers and non-viewers of TV news, but the mean was the same for readers and non-readers of the newspaper.
    Radio Listeners- 3.03mean: Neither Likely Nor Unlikley
    Non-Listeners- 2.20mean: Somewhat Unlikely
    TV News Viewers- 3.22mean: Neither Likely Nor Unlikley
    Non Viewers- 1.25mean: Very Unlikley
    Readers and Non Readers – 3.00 and 3.05mean: Neither Likely Nor Unlikley

5. Is there a difference in metropolitan residents’ preference for simple décor and elegant décor? For unusual desserts and unusual entrees? Assume a 95% confidence level for both tests.

Yes, Simple Décor has a mean of 3.58 – showing it is somewhat preferred while Elegant Décor has a mean of 2.33 showing residents said it is somewhat not preferred.

6. Does the likelihood of patronizing the new upscale restaurant differ among metropolitan residents based on their level of education, marital status, or household income? Assume a 95% confidence level for all three tests.

Yes, all three demographic questions have varying means.

Level of Education:
Less than highschool 1.36
Some highschool 1.07
Highschool grad 1.29
Some college 1.14
  • The less educated segments are all very unlikely
Associate degree 2.43
  • This level is somewhat unlikely
Bachelor’s degree 3.22
Master’s degree 3.44
Doctorate degree 4.44
  • The remaining higher educated respondents are neither likely nor unlikely and the Doctorates somewhat likely.

Marital Status:
Single 2.90
Married 3.03
Other 3.03
  • Marital status didn’t affect the likelihood very much, all were Neither Likely not Unlikely

Household Income:
<$15,000 1.23
$15,000-24,999 1.15
  • Lower incomes are very unlikely
$25,000-49,999 2.68
$50,000-74,999 2.74
  • Mid range are Neither Likely nor Unlikely
$75,000-99,999 4.00
$100,000-149,999 4.56
$150,000 + 4.33

  • Uppper incomes vary bt Somewhat Likely and Very Likely

Memo to the President of a local business

Old Oak Furniture has recently been under new management and she does not fully understand the company’s policy yet. As the grandson of founder of the great company I will do everything in my power to make sure this does not happen again. At Old Oak Furniture will appreciate your business and would like to continue to do business with your company. Will do hope you understand the difficulties we are facing at this time and hope you all will continue to do business with us. I do understand the unfair treat that was given on our part and plan to make up for that.

 We do want you to understand that it was a mistake that you were asked to bid on a specific quantity by a set date. That dates are not the most important part of a deal when working with supplier. That the relationship with your company is far more important that saving $75 dollars. We do understand that just going with the lowest bid will hurt the company in the long run. I hope that this mistake has not ruined our good business relationship.

Petula’s memo to the president should explain the new way of purchasing and dealing with buyers. She should ask the president if he wants her to continue to enforce the company policy of taking the lowest bid from suppliers no matter who the supplier or if forming and keeping good supplier relationships is more important. Petula as the manager should show the president that her new aggressive approach is working for the company and helping with sales.

Expenditures for purchased materials had remained constant while production and sales had risen by 6 percent. This shows that the way Petula has decided to conduct business is paying off. The president needs to make it plain in the company policy for the future if he wants supplier relationship to be important when making a purchase. He needs to explain in detail what steps should be taken to discuss bids with suppliers instead of just taken the lowest at the time because that may not pay off in the long run.

Petula should ensure the president that she has been doing this job for years and she knows what she is doing. She should make the president feel at ease with her decision making and assure him that she is capable of doing her job.

Persuasive Speech Topic Examples Brainstorm for Class

Become an Organ Donor


Animal testing

Term limits

Academic fraud

College class attendance-

Taking Cost of prescription drugs

Living wills

Cell phones in public

Don't Be Scared of Those Sharks

Don't Let Credit Cards Rule Your Life

Human Cloning: Handle With Care

Recycling - It's Worth the Trouble

Steroids Could Ruin Your Health

We Should Be Encouraging Needle Exchange Programs

Working Ourselves to Death?

You Can Change the World - Become an Activist

Coke vs. Pepsi

Eating fast-food


Blood donation

Stem-cell research

Educational costs

Lowering the drinking age


Smoking in public

Helmet laws

Seat belt laws

Prayer in schools

Gun control

Speech on Business Communications

Last Wednesday, Dave Guerin came to speak to our class. He is the executive director of university communications. This is a new department as of May last year to Louisiana Tech. Some things that his new department is responsible for would include institutional marketing. Because athletics are a peephole to how people view Louisiana Tech, they do their best to well represent them. They pair with Learfield Sports to try to get Louisiana Tech's brand tone the strongest it can be. He really emphasized Howe have to be consistent when trying to build our brand. The goals, ideas, and marketing strategies have to overall be the same  across all of our departments. Louisiana Tech did not even have a branding program until 2003. Before this, there were all kinds of weird Tech logos out there. The branding program helped consolidate those and eliminate them from the marketplace. He continuously stressed how much the strength of our brand depends solely on consistency. 

Dave's department also is responsible for all of the athletic or academic press releases. They must be timely where some viewers want to know the news immediately. He mentioned that their ingest challenge is that anyone can post bad news which spreads quickly and is not always accurate. More of this department’s responsibilities include press releases, experts database, being the primary point of contact for media for the university, printed media, and branding and imaging. Some things this school has trade marked are 'La Tech', 'Louisiana Tech', the logo, a photograph, a recognized image of the campus, and the bulldog. We cannot have 'dawgs' trade marked because this is already co-owned by Georgia and Washington.